Transitional Territories

The works presented in the exhibition “INLAND, SEAWARD” opens the new three years cycle of Transitional Territories Studio on the de- / re-territorialization of places, structures and cultures between land and sea.

For the academic year 2020-2021 the studio focuses on the de-construction and re-construction of the geographic space of four climate zones, informed by four lines of inquiry and identified scales and subjects of concern. The studio collectively investigates the possibility of diverse spatio-temporal formations and inhabitation between land and sea—seeking a revised balance between society and nature. The research on the state of the territorial project is developed in collaboration with Diploma Unit 9 at the Architectural Association. The Unit develops projects on a territorial scale, with a strong focus on spatial diagnostics and territorial transformation. At the heart of the studio lies the idea that crises should be revealed and designed rather than latent and suffered.

Four lines of inquiry
subjects. composition. alteration. limit. projections

— ‘Matter’
Earth
Water
Air

— ‘Topos’
Terraforming
Erasure
Translations
Flux

— ‘Habitat’
Mutualism
Competition
Diversity
Entropy

— ‘Politics’
Climate Regime
Ethics
Ownership
Displacement (after belonging)

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Inland Seaward

Curated by
TT Studio
dr.ir. Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin | dr.ir. Luisa Maria Calabrese

Website
o-ko | Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin

Illustrations Projections: Inland, Seaward
Petra Grgic

Sound Projections: Inland, Seaward
Northbound, a documentary about Finmark by Boaz Pieters and Mark Slierings under the framework of Transitional Territories, Landscapes of coexistence studio 2019.

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Transitional Territories
Jānis Bērziņš | Hadrien Cassan | Laura Conijn |Cas Goselink | Jurriënne Heijnen | Marijne Kreulen | Lucas Meneses Di Gioia Ferreira | Kinga Murawska | Asmita Puspasari | Zhongjing Zhang

Pantopia / AA Diploma 9: The Third Territorial Attractor
Stefan Einar Laxness | Antoine Vaxelaire

Vasilis Appios | Luciana Bondio | Jasmine Chui Lam Chung | Romain Conti-Granteral | Philip Nazih Gharios | Jia Wei Huang | Vic Sheng-ya Huang | Hendrick Hing Chun Lin | Romain Rihouet | Andrew Robertson | Ezgi Terzioglu | Zi Min Ting | Mohamad Riad Yassine

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The exhibition opened on February 5th 2021 with the Symposium 'Territory as a Project: Ocean, Land, Atmosphere' with invited speakers Elise Hunchuck [Royal College of Art (ADS7), London], Michel Desvigne [MDP Michel Desvigne Paysagiste], and Daniela Zyman [Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary (TBA21)].

TUDelft
Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment
Transitional Territories Graduation Studio 2020-2021 / Inland Seaward

Transitional Territories is an interdisciplinary design studio focusing on the notion of territory as a constructed project across scales, subjects and media. In particular, the studio focuses on the agency of design in territories at risk between land and water (maritime, riverine, delta landscapes), and the dialectical (or inseparable) relation between nature and culture. The studio explores through cross-disciplinary knowledge (theory, material practice, design and representation) pathways of inquiry and action by building upon Delta Urbanism research tradition, yet moving beyond conventional methods and concepts. During the graduation year, students develop an analytic, critical and conceptual approach to design by means of system and data analysis, critical cartography, scenario planning and new media. The scales of individual projects vary from buildings and (infra)structures to entire landscapes and regions. The theoretical discourse to which the studio refers includes notions of critical zones, territorialism, infrastructure space, (landscape) ecology, environmental risk and transition theory. The studio builds upon a collaborative platform (science, engineering, technology and arts) on ways of seeing, mapping, projecting change and critically acting on urbanized landscapes. At the core of the Delta Urbanism Research Group (Section of Urban Design), the studio is embedded within/and supported by the interdisciplinary TU Delft Delta Futures Lab, working in close collaboration with the Faculties of Civil Engineering and Geosciences and Technology, Policy and Management (TUD).


Studio Leader
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin

Studio Coordinators
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin
Luisa Maria Calabrese

Instructors | Mentors
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin
Luisa Calabrese
Fransje Hooimeijer
Diego Sepulveda Carmona
Daniele Cannatella

Students
Jānis Bērziņš
Hadrien Cassan
Laura Conijn
Cas Goselink
Jurriënne Heijnen
Marijne Kreulen
Lucas Meneses Di Gioia Ferreira
Kinga Murawska
Asmita Puspasari
Zhongjing Zhang

Graduation Sections/ Chairs
Urban Design
Environmental Technology & Design
Spatial Planning and Strategy
Landscape Architecture
Applied Geology (Coastal Morphology)(Faculty of Civil Engineering & Geosciences)

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Composition:
Continental Biotic Humidity Pump

The respiration process of the Amazon rainforest is responsible for bringing a great volume of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean, deep into South America. Due to the altitude of the Andes, this wall of moisture accumulates and slowly moves towards the Southeast of the continent, causing precipitation along the way and irrigating the river sources that then feed the amazon river with water.

Due to South America’s geological and biotic specificities, this system brings the crucial water to irrigate the Centre and South East of the continent unlike other regions on the same latitude around the world which are mostly.

The Xingu River Basin, one of the largest of Brazil and responsible for most clear water feeding into the Amazon river, sits between this continental cycle, where its source is directly dependent on the precipitation brought by what is called as the “Biotic Pump” (Lovejoy and Nobre, 2019).


Alteration:
Xingu River Basin Transformation

The Xingu Basin has been under threat from encroaching land use activities such as deforestation followed by cattle and extensive agriculture activities and finally mining.

These operations are fracturing the basin and affecting its capacity to capture water and sustain natural ecological cycles. The Xingu River source is particularly threatened since extensive agriculture and deforestation is reducing the intake of water from the natural cycles of forest respiration and precipitation.

For decades, the Brazilian State has planned to generate power through the implementation of large hydroelectric dams along the Xingu Basin (Rolla, 2012). These projects have been widely contested due to their ecological and social impacts on the local conditions, nevertheless, the Belo Monte Dam project, has been constructed.


Limit:
Operationalized Water

The Xingu Basin has been operationalized to feed a regular and dependable amount of water for power production by the Belo Monte Dam.

The damming and diversion of the rivers natural course has impacted severely the population that once depended on the ecological dynamics provided by the river at its natural flows, as well as the rivers cultural and religious importance (Ascselrad, 2009).

Certain fish species have been endangered due to the loss of the natural flooding and drought season yearly, which regulate the procreation cycles of many species.

The accelerated deforestation of the amazon rainforest will launch the region into catastrophe since, given the biotic pump effect, the reduction of the forest means a direct reduction of water discharge upstream, and especially at the river source. This in turn will reduce the water downstream which is currently under contest between the dam local inhabitants, further aggravating the conflict and pushing local ecology to the brink of annihilation.

Sources:

Composition
Lovejoy, Thomas, and Carlos Nobre. 2019. “Amazon Tipping Point: Last Chance for Action.” Science Advances.

“Weather map for South America.” Meteoblue. Accessed November, 2020. https://www.meteoblue.com

 

Alteration
Rolla, Alice, André Villas-boas, Eduardo Malta Campos Filho, Marcelo Salazar, Maria Luiza Camargo, Marina Kahn, Marisa Gesteira Fonseca, et al. 2012. De Olho Na Bacia Do XIngu. Edited by Maura Camanilia. 1st ed. Vol. 5. São Paulo: Instituto Socio Ambiental. http://library1.nida.ac.th/termpaper6/sd/2554/19755.pdf.

 

Limit
Ascselrad, Henri, Diana Antonaz, Stephen Grant Baines, José Luís Olivan Birindelli, Paulo Andreas Buckup, Edna Castro, Rosa Carmina de Sena Couto, et al. 2009. Análise Crítica Do Estudo de Impacto Ambiental Do Aproveitamento Hidrelétrico de Belo Monte. Painel de Especialistas.


Composition
The Parisian Basin is a geological landscape composed of various accumulated layers of sedimentary rocks. The land which the Seine river system carves through is the result of millions of years of dynamic water and land interaction. The advancement and retreat of oceans, seas, and lakes have resulted in the accumulation of fossil and sedimentary deposits which form a unique and precious fertile surface. The formation of land is a consequence of the passage of water, highlighting the intrinsic connection between the two matters in the creation of the landscape. The processes of terrestrial formation are incremental and invisible in our lifespan. In a reciprocal exchange, the river system provides new matter to oceans: sediments in the form of sand, mud, and other matters (natural and anthropogenic…) – which flow down the river to its mouth in the English Channel towards the open water, and ultimately down and across the ocean bed.

Geologically, we are in the Holocene epoch, which began about 12 000 years ago after the last major glacial epoch1. Yet today it is argued that human activities since the industrial revolution, notably through subsurface mining, extreme carbon emissions, and deposits of nuclear waste, will leave a long-lasting (geological) imprint on the composition of Earth. Although not officially recognized, we are said to have entered a new geological epoch: the Anthropocene - where anthropogenic systems have replaced aquatic and climatic forces as the drivers of terrestrial modeling.

Alteration
The various vertical layers of Earth which can be found in the Seine River Basin are the temporal results of water dynamics. The ground, which surrounds the Seine, is extremely rich given its depth yet not remarkably diverse: limestone, gypsum, marl are the main mineral components found in the first layers of the subsurface. Through the sectional view, a temporal history unfolds. Each layer represents an era, each depth signifying the longevity of that era, each topographic variation alludes to the shape of the formatting water bodies. The sectional alterations become a way to read the historical changes of the landscape. Here represented is a geological scale of elements – therefore telling a story that dates back millions of years. The Seine basin is found in a relatively low and slightly undulated landscape. A hint is made at human interventions on the geological formation of the basin – justifying the appellation of the Anthropocene as an epoch of significant geological modification.

Limit
The limits here illustrate the anthropogenic forces applied to matter. These forces correspond to the extraction of sedimentary matter – such as aggregates and sands - found in high concentrations in the riverbanks and its meanders. The extraction and application of an alternative movement of matter characterize the scale of human interventions as a new geological force becoming seemingly as powerful as the dynamic exchange between land and water over millions of years. For this reason, we can conclude that we have entered the new geological epoch of the Anthropocene. While land and water respond to climatic forces and are motivated by gravitational forces, human-induced movements of matter are agenda-focused: development of human landscape occupation and the unique anthropogenic systems which have derived from civilization. The appropriation, modification, commodification, and application of matter have become a given in society as the foundation of human settlements. The city of Paris represents the anthropogenic gravitational force in the territory as the space where matter is moved towards. As a concentrated urban area, the city becomes a producer of anthropogenic matter through the likes of demolition debris, excavated soils, wast…  The anthropogenic agenda has long isolated itself from external systems provoking many disruptions to other ecological and climatic dynamics, exposing a non-co-evolutionary relationship.

Sources:

Composition
1 Cohen, Kim M., Stan C. Finney, Philip L. Gibbard, and J-X. Fan. "The ICS international chronostratigraphic chart." Episodes 36, no. 3 (2013): 199-204.


Composition
Erosion, Flooding and Sediment Transport in West-Europe

70,9% percent of earth’s surface consists of water( USGS, n.d) . The North Sea plays a very small part in this surface as an inland sea that is a small part of the Atlantic Ocean. This inland sea can be found on the European continental shelf and is adjacent to the countries: Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Coastal areas in these European countries create room for recreation and tourism but are also a territory for disaster. The transitional territories that can be found adjacent to the North Sea often experience problems related to water. Sea level rise and erosion have been reoccuring issues in the North Sea and the adjacent coasts in West-Europe.

Water is a significant type of matter relating to coastal erosion. The impact of this water can be defined through the composition in comparison to the soils that are exposed to erosion due to direct physical contact with surfaces of water.  Through erosion the sea slowly takes ownership of the land and replaces this land with water.

Vulnerable areas for this process can be found in southeast England, but also other parts of coastal Europe. The risk due to erosion is high in this part of Europe. Big parts of the coast are defined as high risk and medium high risk areas to erosion (Eurosion, 2004). These vulnerabilities are caused by the soil types of east England, which consists mainly out of soft soils, but also the water flows, the sediment transport, sea bathymetry and the wave height are factors that have impact on the risks and vulnerabilities of coastal zones.

In other countries adjacent to the North Sea, such as the Netherlands, coastal erosion is not the main issue. In this part of continental Europe, sea level rise forms a bigger threat to these coastal areas, due to the low land surfaces (EEA, 2020).


Alteration
Effects of the Elements

More than 400 000 years ago, Great Britain used to be part of continental Europe. This changes when a glacial lake in the North Sea basin spills over and causes a flood filling the former dry surfaces between the current island of Great Britain and continental Europe with water (Gibbard, 2017). The ridge  of sedimentary rocks consisting of white chalk that was formed in the Cretaceous period transitioned to the function of coastline.

This change in proportions between land and sea is what is today’s cause of erosion on the coastline of the North Sea and coastal England. The ridges form conflicts with the damaging characteristics of water. Water transport due to the current and the impact of wind is the cause of changes in soil composition and sediment transport ultimately resulting in erosion.

Today’s coastline is highly inhabited by human populations due to the benefits of living near water and sea in terms of shipping, recreation and tourism. This coastline is, however, also highly altered due to the eroding conditions of water. Erosion causes significant conflicts in urban areas resulting in collapse of housing due to the retreat of the coastline.


Limit
Past and Future Terraforming

Before the North Sea existed like it does today, continental Europe included Great Britain. 400.000 years ago a transformation happened and Britain geologically parted from continental Europe due to overspilling of water into lower areas,  which are today’s location of the North sea. This phenomenon was shortly reproduced 12.500 years ago (Gibbard, 2017) .

During the Weichselian Glaciation, the most recent glacial period, Britain was shortly reconnected to continental Europe.  The North Sea was filled  with ice sheets, a limited amount of rivers and mostly dry land. Only a small lake was filled with water during this period (1).

After this glacial period, due to the rise of temperature, the North Sea returned to today’s state with its original borders adjacent to several European countries. The sea is also connected to the Norwegian sea and the British Channel (2).

As the North Sea was reformed, the conflicts between water and land arose. One of these conflicts is flooding. Over the next few years, the sea level will rise significantly due to climate change. This will cause parts of  low-lying continental and non-continental Europe to flood (3) (EEA, 2020).

Next to sea level rise, erosion will be accelerated due to sea level rise and, therefore, change in hydraulic action as a result of temperature rise in the modern warm period. A great part of England, if not all, is highly sensitive to erosion due to the weak resistance created by soil types such as chalk (4) (Masselink & Russel, 2013). Sea level rise and coastal erosion are events that cause water to ‘replace’ the land surface and therefore, decrease possible room for settlements and population. With the increase of temperature and the increase of these water related issues, this might form complications for the future. Warm periods have been happening repeatedly for thousands, however, this time there is an anthropogenic impact on this temperature rise and vice versa.

Sources:

Composition
Directorate General EnvironmentEuropean Commission “Living with Coastal Erosion in Europe: Sediment and Space for Sustainability.” EUROSION. 2004. http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/part1.pdf

Flood Map “Water Level Elevation Map.” Floodmap.net. 2020. Accessed December 12, 2020 https://www.floodmap.net/

Johnson, M. A., Kenyon, N. H., Belderston, R. H., & Stride, A. H.  “Offshore Tidal Sands: An Introduction”. Sand Transport. 1982. 58-94.

Masselink, G., & Russell, P. “Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Erosion.” Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership: Science Review. 2014. 71–86. https://doi.org/10.14465/2013.arc09.071-086

OpenDEM. “The world’s bathymetry.” GEBCO. 2019. Accessed November 2, 2020. https://www.opendem.info/download_bathymetry.html

United States Geological Survey. “How Much Water is There on Earth?” Department of the Interior. Accessed December 16, 2020. https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/how-much-water-there-earth?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

 

Alteration
Directorate General EnvironmentEuropean Commission “Living with Coastal Erosion in Europe: Sediment and Space for Sustainability.” EUROSION. 2004. http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/part1.pdf

Hurst, M. D., Rood, D. H., Ellis, M. A., Anderson, R. S., & Dornbusch, U. “Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2016. 113(47). 13336–13341.https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1613044113

Masselink, G., & Russell, P. “Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Erosion.” Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership: Science Review. 2014. 71–86. https://doi.org/10.14465/2013.arc09.071-086

 

Limit
Directorate General EnvironmentEuropean Commission “Living with Coastal Erosion in Europe: Sediment and Space for Sustainability.” EUROSION. 2004. http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/part1.pdf

Gibbard, P. “The real story behind Britain’s geological exit.” Physics Today. 2017. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1063/pt.6.1.20170607a

Flood Map “Water Level Elevation Map.” Floodmap.net. 2020. Accessed December 12, 2020 https://www.floodmap.net/

Masselink, G., & Russell, P. “Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Erosion.” Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership: Science Review. 2014. 71–86. https://doi.org/10.14465/2013.arc09.071-086

OpenDEM. “The world’s bathymetry.” GEBCO. 2019. Accessed November 2, 2020. https://www.opendem.info/download_bathymetry.html


Composition
As the Dutch river- and landscape have been continuously adapted to increase functionality over the past centuries, the delta can be described as an anthropogenic river system (Sijmons, 2002). Therefore, the only way to fully understand the system of the Dutch anthropogenic riverscape, is to identify the characteristic elements which are put in place to manage it. These remnants of rigidity portray the desire to control the fluidity inherently connected to the delta.

The map depicts the composition of locks along the IJssel River and estuary of the IJsselmeer. The objects are necessary in order to manipulate the water table, ensuring both navigability across sloped terrain, and precise management of water levels for safety of the surrounding territory. Most of the objects were placed in the 1950s and ‘60s (HSSN, n.d.). Although the basic spatial characteristics of the objects themselves are similar, the implementation into the water system and surrounding territory varies a lot.

It is striking that almost all lateral connections of the river and lake into the hinterland are controlled by anthropogenic objects and structures, without which either the connection would be impossible, or the site would be unsafe or uninhabitable. The dependency on infrastructural objects in regards of water management is huge. Maybe too large for comfort?­­­

Alteration
As the IJssel River flows through a valley, adaptation of the natural water system is necessary in order to connect to its hinterland. To both the west (Apeldoorn) and the east (Hengelo, Enschede), canals have been dug, completed with infrastructural objects (locks and weirs) to manage the water levels uphill. Striking is the bridged height difference when comparing the lateral sections of the canals above, to the longitudinal river profile in the middle (AHN, n.d.).

Interestingly, the water level indicator in the longitudinal section provides also clues on the spatial characteristics of the river, as every rise in the line indicates a narrow passage or bottleneck in the river, which limits the free flow downstream (Klijn, 2020). These passages are mostly located next to riverine cities, created by bridges, harbour infrastructure or underground objects.

The section below shows the temporal dimension of the water system, through the depiction of the high water canal near Veessen - Wapenveld. This recently constructed dam will open its floodgates when the riverine water level reaches + 5.65 m NAP, after which a controlled flow of water will be stored in a neighbouring polder (De Ingenieur, 2017). The riverine water level at the site drops by 0.71 meters, however the effects are still being witnessed 17 kilometres downstream at Deventer.

Limits
The spatio-temporal diagram to the right shows the current (reference) discharge levels of the IJssel*, along with the predictions for 2050 and 2085 (Attema et al., 2014). Due to the rapidly changing climate regime, the extreme pluvial events in catchment basins, alternated with periods of water shortage or even drought, form a real threat to the contemporary anthropogenic riverscape and its uses (Tol et al., 2003).

In December, January and February, extreme peak discharges will have to be managed through the outlet of the IJssel estuary in the Closure Dam, which would have to be drastically adapted. At the same time, the temporal structure of the high water canal will be used more frequent over longer periods of time, raising the question whether a temporal structure is a sufficient solution. During the dry months of August, September and October, water levels will be too low for river navigation, and locks will be unable to function, depriving factories of their raw materials. In general, concluding on the objects of the anthropogenic riverscape, is the system too rigid to cope with climate change as it sits now.

The proposition put forward through the diagram is the immense complexity of the system and all of its separate infrastructural elements, which both in itself and combined are too rigid to handle the increasing dynamics of the changing hydrological cycle. The essence of climate change in relation to the Dutch riverscape is that an engineering solution on the object scale will not suffice, but a complete rethinking of the entire river system is needed in order to integrally deal with the pending changes.

*Based on the assumption that the discharge division stays at 1/9th of the Rhine discharge as set in Pannerden.

Sources:

Composition
Sijmons, Dirk, and Fred Feddes. “Landkaartmos en andere beschouwingen over landschap.” Uitgeverij 010, 2002.
HSSN. “Historische Sluizen en Stuwen in Nederland.” Accessed December 24, 2020. https://www.sluizenenstuwen.nl/geschiedenisvansluizenenstuwen.asp

Alteration
AHN. “Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland.” Accessed November 11, 2020. https://ahn.arcgisonline.nl/ahnviewer/
De Ingenieur. “Hoogwatergeul voor de Ijssel.” Accessed October 08, 2020. https://www.deingenieur.nl/artikel/hoogwatergeul-voor-de-ijssel
Klijn, Frans. “The development of the Rhine River’s flood management: past, current and future issues.” Accessed November 26, 2020. http://deltafutureslab.org/media/

Limit
Attema, Jisk, Alexander Bakker, Jules Beersma, Janette Bessembinder, Reinout Boers, Theo Brandsma, Henk van den Brink et al. "KNMI’14: Climate Change scenarios for the 21st Century–A Netherlands perspective." KNMI: De Bilt, The Netherlands (2014.

Tol, Richard SJ, Nicolien Van Der Grijp, Alexander A. Olsthoorn, and Peter E. Van Der Werff. "Adapting to climate: a case study on riverine flood risks in the Netherlands." Risk Analysis: An International Journal 23, no. 3 (2003): 575-583.


Composition
The Baltic Sea can be considered almost a land-locked Sea because it is connected to the Atlantic Ocean only through 3 straits in Denmark. This means that the sea water level changes are influenced by wind rather than tides. As the Gulf of Riga is connected to the Baltic Proper through straits of Irbe and several smaller straits between Islands of Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Muhu and Vormsi the changes in the water level in the Gulf are more visible then in the Baltic Proper (Nikodemos and Brumelis, 2015,75-76).  As the main wind direction in this territory is South-West and West, the highest water level fluctuation can be seen in the Gulf of Parnu on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Riga.

Nevertheless, the South-western winds bring also warmer air masses from the Atlantic Ocean and the open sea, influencing the air temperature on the coast, resulting in warmer temperatures along the coastline in comparison to the inland. Due to climate change, the average air temperature is projected to increase by several degrees, resulting in visible changes in the landscape especially in the winter (Klavins, et.al, 2008, 75-85). It is projected that due to the increasing average air temperature, the snow-covered area will move towards North-East and during winter months there will be no permanent snow cover thicker than 1 cm on the western coastline of the Gulf (Klimata parmainu analizes riks, meteo.lv).


Alteration
Warmer air temperatures in winter have been increasing in the past decades, however on the coastline the most evident changes in the landscape during winter can be seen on the Gulf. The ice on the Gulf is not forming annually, but occasionally and becomes thinner. Although this process eases shipping and fishing in the Gulf, the influence of this process on the marine habitats is yet to be evaluated in the long term.

With warmer air, the vegetation period on the coastline is also becoming longer, potentially increasing the productivity of the forests and agriculture lands, although welcoming invasive species from more southern climates (Nikodemus and Brumelis, 2015).

Warmer air temperature also warms the upper soil levels. The level of soil frost is becoming shallower, causing more severe coastal erosion during autumn and winter storms due to the fact that the sandy soils on the coastline are not frozen and are more exposed to the water fluctuation (Eberhards, 2004,10 ).


Limit
The monthly average air temperature has significantly increased in winter and spring months, resulting in major changes in the climatic conditions associated with traditional cultural events. As the pagan tribes living in modern Baltic states, including Latvia, was one of the last to be Christianized by the German crusades in the 13th century, the pagan traditions were well maintained and cherished throughout centuries. These notions are visible also nowadays with public holidays and cultural events associated with the pagan celebrations that were linked to the natural processes in nature and the circular notion of time.

The changing climate puts limits on these traditions, because the time of the year when these celebrations take place is not linked with the natural processes in nature. For example, a tradition on winter solstice eve includes rolling a log in snow and pulling it around your house to collect all the evil spirits and then burning it, however, due to lack of snow, this tradition is happening differently. Another example is linked to the Jumji celebration, in which the harvest of the season is evaluated, but with the warmer summers, the harvest season is extended.

On the other hand, it can be argued that the strong link to the past events put the limit of the society to accept the inevitable changes in climate.

Sources:

Composition
Klavins, Maris et al,  2008 “Klimata mainiba un globala sasilsana”, Riga, Latvia, LU akademiskais apgads

Klimata parmainu analizes riks: Accessed October 24, 2020. https://www4.meteo.lv/klimatariks/

Nikodemus, Olgerts and Brumelis, Guntis, 2015 “Dabas aizsardziba”, 2nd edition, Riga, Latvia, LU akademiskais apgads

 

Alteration
Nikodemus, Olgerts and Brumelis, Guntis, 2015 “Dabas aizsardziba”, 2nd edition, Riga, Latvia, LU akademiskais apgads

Eberhards, Guntis, 2004, “Jura uzbruk! Ko darit?”, Riga, Latvia, Latvijas Universitate.

 

 

 

 


Composition
The Baltic Sea is one of the most polluted seas in the world and its critical issue is eutrophication, which is particularly visible in the coastal areas1. Eutrophication is a process, caused by an excessive anthropogenic nutrients load, mainly phosphorus and nitrogen, into the sea waters2. It results in increased growth of potentially toxic algae and deep-water oxygen deficiency3.

One of the reasons for eutrophication in the Baltic Sea is the fact that its natural capacity of processing the nutrients is exceeded by the amount of polluted water the Baltic Sea receives from its vast drainage area (fourfold the sea area) with nutrient accumulation in the sea over the last fifty to one hundred years4.

Moreover, the retention of pollutants in the Baltic Sea takes a considerable amount of time and the process of stratification diminish ventilation of deep waters, leading to hypoxia, which then may cause loss of biodiversity in the sea waters3.


Alteration
One of the rivers which drains into the Baltic Sea is the Vistula River whose catchment area covers nearly 200,000 square kilometers and accounts for over half of Polish territory1. The amount of pollution entering the river varies along the course and depends on the use of landscape. The industrial pollutants from the Upper Vistula are partly retained in Goczałkowice Reservoir, similarly, the inputs from urban areas and agriculture in the middle course are processed and retained to some degree in reservoirs2.

As shown in the section, the major inputs to the Gdansk Bay originate from the Vistula River basin, the additional load of nutrients and pollutants come from Tri-city effluents and atmosphere. Part of the load sinks in a process of sedimentation but might be resuspended in the event of flooding or dredging3.

The Gdansk Deep is the final depository of fine particle, the organic pollution which originates mainly from the Vistula River basin leads to a permanent low oxygen condition - hypoxia - in the Gdansk Deep2.


Limit
Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea exacerbated after the mid-twentieth century1. The visible decrease in the nutrient input in the 1980s was caused by the use of efficient sewage treatment2. Later in 2009, The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR) was adopted by the European Council. One of its objectives was to promote the protection of the marine environment by reducing the loads of nutrients entering the sea. Even though the adoption of the strategy led to a decrease in nutrient release to water bodies, the changing climate poses additional challenges. Rising sea surface temperature prolongs the growth period of algal blooms and creates more favorable conditions for the increase of algae population3. Secondly, as winters become shorter and wetter, the Baltic Sea ice cover significantly shrinks, and the amount of snow in the sea sub-catchment areas decreases throughout the years. That leads to a smaller water retention capacity of the sub-catchment areas and thus greater run-off of nutrients from there, which exacerbates the problem of eutrophication4.

Sources:

Composition
1 “Nutrients in transitional, coastal and marine waters,” Indicator assessment, European Environment Agency, Last modified April 11, 2019, https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/nutrients-in-transitional-coastal-and-4/assessment/.

2 Bo G. Gustafsson, Frederik Schenk, Thorsten Blenckner, Kari Eilola, HE Markus Meier, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Thomas Neumann, Tuija Ruoho-Airola, Oleg P. Savchuk, and Eduardo Zorita, “Reconstructing the development of Baltic Sea eutrophication 1850–2006,” Ambio 41, no. 6 (2012): 534.

3Ragnar Elmgren, “Understanding human impact on the Baltic ecosystem: changing views in recent decades,” Ambio (2001): 227-230.

4 Jesper H. Andersen, Jacob Carstensen, Daniel J. Conley, Karsten Dromph, Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen, Bo G. Gustafsson, Alf B. Josefson, Alf Norkko, Anna Villnäs, and Ciarán Murray, “Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea,” Biological Reviews 92, no. 1 (2017): 135.

 

Alteration
1Zdzisław Kajak, “The Vistula river and its riparian zones,” Hydrobiologia 251, no. 1 (1993): 149.

2Andreas Kannen, Jan Jedrasik, Marek Kowalewski, Bogdan Oldakowski, and Jacek Nowacki, “Assessing catchment-coast interactions for the Bay of Gdansk,” Managing the Baltic Sea, Coastline Reports 2 (2004): 159.

3Sílvia Cañellas-Boltà, Roger Strand, and Barbro Killie, “Management of environmental uncertainty in maintenance dredging of polluted harbours in Norway,” Water science and technology 52, no. 6 (2005): 94.

 

Limits
1 Ragnar Elmgren, “Understanding human impact on the Baltic ecosystem: changing views in recent decades,” Ambio (2001): 222.

2 Jesper H. Andersen, Jacob Carstensen, Daniel J. Conley, Karsten Dromph, Vivi Fleming-Lehtinen, Bo G. Gustafsson, Alf B. Josefson, Alf Norkko, Anna Villnäs, and Ciarán Murray, “Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea,” Biological Reviews 92, no. 1 (2017): 136.

3 European Court of Auditors, Combating eutrophication  in the Baltic Sea: further and more effective action needed  (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016), 10.

4 Hans Von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Janet Pawlak, Marcus Reckermann, Irena Borzenkova, Eduardo Zorita, Olga Borisova, Laimdota Kalniņa, Dalia Kisielienė, and Tiiu Koff, Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Springer, 2015


Composition
Air is a physical condition. Even though we would sooner describe it as invisible or ungraspable, it is in fact matter. The air consists of concentrations of nitrogen, oxygen and small amounts of other gasses. Air also carries a considerable amount of water vapor (approximately 1% above sea) and displaces soil and seeds. Matters of water and soil can thus be found in the air.

Vice versa, the matter of air can also be found in bodies of water and soil. Indeed, the presence of air concentrations in lakes, seas and rivers allow for biotic life. In soil, aeration is a vital condition for microorganisms that release nutrients necessary for plants to grow.

The matters of air, water and soil are thus to a certain extent composed of each other.  Yet, what makes air so particular is its boundlessness. Air does not just cross the domains of water and soil, it also passes over the administrative borders we draw on our maps. Air is in constant movement, more so than water or soil. Its winds can reach a speed of 100 km/h traversing land and sea and crossing the coastline in between.

The air is everywhere. It surrounds our bodies and it flows through our lungs. It is within and without. Flowing inland, then seaward. It is the atmosphere; that which makes our planet so uniquely a place of life.


Alteration
The physical power of air can most profoundly be experienced through its alterations. For instance, a different wind direction might carry a different smell. A sudden cold draft might cause goosebumps. We can hear a gust of wind ringing in our ears, we can see it swirl the leaves on the forest floor, and we feel it pulling our hair.

Imagine a place where the air is perfectly immobile. We would hear no sound, would smell no scents, we would barely feel more than the ground beneath our feet. Air enables perception. It is a medium (Horn, 2018) that links the alterations of climate to us, the perceiving. Air binds the person to the land.

The sensorial aspects of air can be studied through a phenomenological approach. This approach focuses not on the air itself, but on the forces it applies to our bodies and our surroundings. The sections on the next page can illustrate this. Without drawing the air flows itself, the image still reads ‘wind!’. A phenomenological approach allows us to understand the consciousness or personal experience of a place.


Limit
Air impacts us, and we impact air in return. We alter the composition of air through pollution, deforestation and excessive CO2 emission. These alterations originate from local human activities. In Tromsø, the AQI pollution index rates are significantly higher than the rest of Norway, with an exemption to the Oslo area (TWAQP, 2020). This could quite possibly be the cause of the intensive oil industry situated along the Finnmark coast. It is the agglomeration of such local impacts that causes the global phenomenon of climate change.

In the last 20 years, air temperature rise in the Arctic has exceeded the average global trends. In fact, Arctic temperatures currently rise at more than twice the rate of average global warming (Overland et al., 2018). It is the velocity of change that threatens us so. Because, it affects not only us as individuals, or communities, but our generations as well. Each child is delivered to a changing world that is more extreme than the world of their parents. It is important to view climate change from a socio-cultural perspective, beyond the scope of our own lifespan.

Ultimately, air is both global and local (Horn. E, 2018). It is not bound by administrative borders, nor is air pollution. Climate change may be caused locally, but its effects are shared by everyone, everywhere, now and in the time to come. So, when we address air politically we should look beyond the limitations of space and time. Is that possible? Where then do we draw the political boundaries of air? And most importantly, if we all share air, who will take responsibility for it?

Sources:

Composition
[sources map]
“2m Temperature and 10m Wind.” European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Accessed October 10, 2020. https://apps.ecmwf.int/webapps/opencharts/products/medium-2t-wind.

 

Alteration
[references text]
Horn, Eva. 2018. “Air as Medium.” Grey Room, no. 73: 6–25.

[sources map]

none

[sources image]
Bill Viola, The Reflecting Pool, 1977, film still, Art Institute Chicago, accessed 29 January, 2021, https://www.artic.edu/artworks/108765/the-reflecting-pool-collected-works.

 

Limits
[references text]
Horn, Eva. 2018. “Air as Medium.” Grey Room, no. 73: 6–25.

Overland, J., E. Hanna, I. Hanssen-Bauer, S. Kim, J. Walsh, M. Wang, U. Bhatt, and R. Thoman. 2017. “Surface Air Temperature.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (8): S130–31.

“Real-time Air Quality Index (AQI).” The World Air Quality Project. Accessed October 10, 2020. https://aqicn.org/city/norway/norway.

 

[sources map]
Plecher, H. Norway: Life Expectancy at Birth from 2008 to 2018, by Gender.  27 October, 2020. Distributed by Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/971046/life-expectancy-at-birth-in-norway-by-gender 2020.

‘Arctic Temperatures.” Zachary Labe. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://sites.uci.edu/zlabe/arctic-temperatures/.


Composition – Water System
The flow pattern of the river that becomes the inlet of Lake Toba is dominated by small rivers with a total of 289 rivers, although only 71 rivers are permanent rivers and the rest are seasonal rivers. From mainland Sumatra, 177 rivers flow and from Samosir Island 122 rivers (Soedarsono, 1989).

There are main inflow and outflow points which are indicated through the map. Salang Simangira River has the highest debit with ± 10.0 m3/s for the inflow. And, for the outflow, Asahan River as the only outflow river has 100 m3/s debit. Thus, this flow becomes a source for Sigura-Gura hydro-power plant with capacity up to 286 MW (Kompas, 22 September 2005).

The current pattern in the northern part of Lake Toba tends to circulate locally, indicating that pollutants entering the north of the lake will take a long time to be removed from the lake.


Alteration – Water Pressure
The water level of Toba Lake is influenced by water inflow, direct rainfall, evaporation, and water outflow through Asahan River.

1977-1978 – The water level of Toba lake is 906 meter above sea level

1983 – The status of Toba Lake becomes the largest natural dam in the world. The dam’s control is located in Siruar. This dam controller is able to control Toba’s water level mechanically from 901m to 905.8m above sea level

Efforts to maintain the stability of water flow entering the turbine were carried out by dredging the Asahan River along the 13.6 km from Porsea to the Siruar Dam. Dredging of the Asahan river bed causes a change in the cross-sectional area of the water passage, so that the original water flow capacity of 75 m3/s (905 m) was transformed into 153 m3/s (902.4 m).

1987 – The rainfall was below normal. Due to the operation of the turbine was important, the Lake Toba’s water level continuously decreased until 902.87 in 1999.

2009 – The rainfall returned to normal and even above normal due to the La Nina phenomenon. Lake Toba water level has reached 905.3 m.

In addition, with the entry of Lae Renun hydro-power into Lake Toba (minimum discharge 10 m3/s), the natural equilibrium of Lake Toba has been disturbed. There will no longer be a drop in the water level of Lake Toba due to its input is always above normal. This will cause inundation for agriculture areas close to the lake borderline and higher pressure on the dam waterflow that will create sedimentation on the downstream areas (Tanjung Balai City) (Lukman, 2013).

Therefore, control of the dam as a regulator of released and transfer water is needed by doing careful observation on rainfall rate pattern and water discharge pattern in a year to understand the whole pattern of the lake height level. The possibility of climate change that may alter the rainfall rate needs also to be considered, since the declining lake height level will disturb the fish habitat. However, other factors such as and use changes may also play a role for the changes of lake height level (H. Moedjodo, et al., 2006).


Limit – Aquaculture Growth
Water quality of Lake Toba is influenced by four main drivers: aquaculture, domestic & tourism, livestock, and agriculture. The main causes are lack of water treatment, poor water management, and the use of traditional approaches for agriculture (using high amounts of fertilizers). Because of this, direct discharge of pollution into the rivers and the lake are highly potential. Causing some impacts such as flooding, algal bloom, turbid water, oxygen depletion, and gas eruption on the lake bed (World Bank Group, 2018).

Moreover, by referring to Table 1. It can be understood that there was a double increase of fish farming units between 2005 to 2007. It means that the number of fish farming units is predicted to increase in future years. In addition, the use of fish pallets is harmful to the lake water since about 62.3 % of initial concentration of phosphorus consisting within the palettes becomes waste. To conclude, the number of pollution caused by fish farming will significantly rise along with the increase of fish farming unit number.

Sources:

Composition – Water System

[image sources]
Welcome to Badan Informasi Geospatial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2021, from https://tanahair.indonesia.go.id/

[references]
Rustini, H A, Lukman, and Iwan Ridwansyah. 2014. “PENDUGAAN POLA ARUS DUA DIMENSI DI DANAU TOBA Hadiid.” Limnotek 21 (1): 21–29. file:///J:/Data/Computer/Config/Citavi5/Projects/Endnote/Citavi Attachments/53-217-1-PB (2).pdf M4  – Citavi.
Arjuna, Jaya. 2013. “Danau Toba, Kondisi Kekinian, Permasalahan Dan Pengelolaannya,” 1–20.
Lukman. 2013. Danau Toba: Karakteristik Limnologis Dan Mitigasi Ancaman Lingkungan Dari Pengembangan Karamba Jaring Apung

Alteration – Water Pressure

[image sources]
Welcome to Badan Informasi Geospatial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2021, from https://tanahair.indonesia.go.id/

[references]
Lukman. 2013. Danau Toba: Karakteristik Limnologis Dan Mitigasi Ancaman Lingkungan Dari Pengembangan Karamba Jaring Apung.

Moedjodo, H, P Simanjuntak, P Hehanussa, and Lufiandi. 2006. “Experience and Lessons Learned Brief for Lake Toba.” International Lake Environment Committee Foundation 1 (July): 1–30.

World Bank Group. 2018. “Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia.” Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1596/32196 

Limit – Aquaculture Growth

[image sources]
Arjuna, Jaya. 2013. “Danau Toba, Kondisi Kekinian, Permasalahan Dan Pengelolaannya,” 1–20.

Lukman. 2013. Danau Toba: Karakteristik Limnologis Dan Mitigasi Ancaman Lingkungan Dari Pengembangan Karamba Jaring Apung.

Welcome to Badan Informasi Geospatial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2021, from https://tanahair.indonesia.go.id/

World Bank Group. 2018. “Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia.” Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1596/32196.

[references]
Rustini, H A, Lukman, and Iwan Ridwansyah. 2014. “PENDUGAAN POLA ARUS DUA DIMENSI DI DANAU TOBA Hadiid.” Limnotek 21 (1): 21–29. file:///J:/Data/Computer/Config/Citavi5/Projects/Endnote/Citavi Attachments/53-217-1-PB (2).pdf M4  – Citavi.

Arjuna, Jaya. 2013. “Danau Toba, Kondisi Kekinian, Permasalahan Dan Pengelolaannya,” 1–20.

Lukman. 2013. Danau Toba: Karakteristik Limnologis Dan Mitigasi Ancaman Lingkungan Dari Pengembangan Karamba Jaring Apung.

World Bank Group. 2018. “Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia.” Improving the Water Quality of Lake Toba, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1596/32196.