Transitional Territories

The works presented in the exhibition “INLAND, SEAWARD” opens the new three years cycle of Transitional Territories Studio on the de- / re-territorialization of places, structures and cultures between land and sea.

For the academic year 2020-2021 the studio focuses on the de-construction and re-construction of the geographic space of four climate zones, informed by four lines of inquiry and identified scales and subjects of concern. The studio collectively investigates the possibility of diverse spatio-temporal formations and inhabitation between land and sea—seeking a revised balance between society and nature. The research on the state of the territorial project is developed in collaboration with Diploma Unit 9 at the Architectural Association. The Unit develops projects on a territorial scale, with a strong focus on spatial diagnostics and territorial transformation. At the heart of the studio lies the idea that crises should be revealed and designed rather than latent and suffered.

Four lines of inquiry
subjects. composition. alteration. limit. projections

— ‘Matter’
Earth
Water
Air

— ‘Topos’
Terraforming
Erasure
Translations
Flux

— ‘Habitat’
Mutualism
Competition
Diversity
Entropy

— ‘Politics’
Climate Regime
Ethics
Ownership
Displacement (after belonging)

_____

Inland Seaward

Curated by
TT Studio
dr.ir. Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin | dr.ir. Luisa Maria Calabrese

Website
o-ko | Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin

Illustrations Projections: Inland, Seaward
Petra Grgic

Sound Projections: Inland, Seaward
Northbound, a documentary about Finmark by Boaz Pieters and Mark Slierings under the framework of Transitional Territories, Landscapes of coexistence studio 2019.

_____

Transitional Territories
Jānis Bērziņš | Hadrien Cassan | Laura Conijn |Cas Goselink | Jurriënne Heijnen | Marijne Kreulen | Lucas Meneses Di Gioia Ferreira | Kinga Murawska | Asmita Puspasari | Zhongjing Zhang

Pantopia / AA Diploma 9: The Third Territorial Attractor
Stefan Einar Laxness | Antoine Vaxelaire

Vasilis Appios | Luciana Bondio | Jasmine Chui Lam Chung | Romain Conti-Granteral | Philip Nazih Gharios | Jia Wei Huang | Vic Sheng-ya Huang | Hendrick Hing Chun Lin | Romain Rihouet | Andrew Robertson | Ezgi Terzioglu | Zi Min Ting | Mohamad Riad Yassine

_____

The exhibition opened on February 5th 2021 with the Symposium 'Territory as a Project: Ocean, Land, Atmosphere' with invited speakers Elise Hunchuck [Royal College of Art (ADS7), London], Michel Desvigne [MDP Michel Desvigne Paysagiste], and Daniela Zyman [Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary (TBA21)].

TUDelft
Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment
Transitional Territories Graduation Studio 2020-2021 / Inland Seaward

Transitional Territories is an interdisciplinary design studio focusing on the notion of territory as a constructed project across scales, subjects and media. In particular, the studio focuses on the agency of design in territories at risk between land and water (maritime, riverine, delta landscapes), and the dialectical (or inseparable) relation between nature and culture. The studio explores through cross-disciplinary knowledge (theory, material practice, design and representation) pathways of inquiry and action by building upon Delta Urbanism research tradition, yet moving beyond conventional methods and concepts. During the graduation year, students develop an analytic, critical and conceptual approach to design by means of system and data analysis, critical cartography, scenario planning and new media. The scales of individual projects vary from buildings and (infra)structures to entire landscapes and regions. The theoretical discourse to which the studio refers includes notions of critical zones, territorialism, infrastructure space, (landscape) ecology, environmental risk and transition theory. The studio builds upon a collaborative platform (science, engineering, technology and arts) on ways of seeing, mapping, projecting change and critically acting on urbanized landscapes. At the core of the Delta Urbanism Research Group (Section of Urban Design), the studio is embedded within/and supported by the interdisciplinary TU Delft Delta Futures Lab, working in close collaboration with the Faculties of Civil Engineering and Geosciences and Technology, Policy and Management (TUD).


Studio Leader
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin

Studio Coordinators
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin
Luisa Maria Calabrese

Instructors | Mentors
Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin
Luisa Calabrese
Fransje Hooimeijer
Diego Sepulveda Carmona
Daniele Cannatella

Students
Jānis Bērziņš
Hadrien Cassan
Laura Conijn
Cas Goselink
Jurriënne Heijnen
Marijne Kreulen
Lucas Meneses Di Gioia Ferreira
Kinga Murawska
Asmita Puspasari
Zhongjing Zhang

Graduation Sections/ Chairs
Urban Design
Environmental Technology & Design
Spatial Planning and Strategy
Landscape Architecture
Applied Geology (Coastal Morphology)(Faculty of Civil Engineering & Geosciences)

image

Composition
The edges of the Vistula River in the urban areas have been altered throughout history in order to accommodate various functions and make the edge operational. In the case of the city of Gdańsk, the proximity to the Vistula river and its (now former) estuary was a key driver in shaping the city character and boosting its growth. Gdańsk became an important trading hub on the map of Europe and since the middle of the 14th century, it belonged to Hanseatic League, a supranational alliance of cities and ports located by the Baltic and the North Sea1.

The growth of the port stimulated the development of the industries, including the shipbuilding industry on the waterfronts of der Holm (today called Ostrów Island) and the Young City2. Due to economic and technological changes both the port and the industrial activities are being moved seaward, requiring land reclamation and leaving behind underused and disused landscapes adjacent to the urban tissue.

The city of Gdańsk proposed a strategy to regenerate the post-industrial area of Young City and incorporate it into the Central Belt of Services which binds the Tricity metropolitan area (Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot)3. On the other side, the project of the Central Port would add extra 410 hectares of reclaimed land4, which may result in migration of some Inner Port activities seaward, and thus the emergence of 120 hectares of disused land on the left bank of the Dead Vistula River that could be gradually incorporated into the urban tissue5.


Alteration
Throughout history, there was a close relationship between the ports and cities linked with them as the city’s wealth was dependent on its capacity to adapt the port to emerging changes in economy and technology1. The city of Gdańsk was first closely related to the port, which lay by Motława river (a tributary of the Dead Vistula River), and thus the waterfront had then both operational and urban function2. Subsequently, some activities were moved to the new port in the mouth of the Vistula River, leaving space between the city and the estuary for industries and further expansion of the port.

In the mid-nineteenth century the Prussian authorities, as Gdańsk was a part of Prussia at that time, saw an opportunity to build shipbuilding industry by the Vistula River3. Most of the development occurred in the Young City, an area adjacent to the city and close to the mouth of the river. Some buildings were also located on Ostrów Island. The shipyard developed rapidly thanks to its location and the national investment in navy4. However, after the socio-economic transformation in 1989, the financial status of the institution drastically changed and it went bankrupt in 1996. The remaining activities were moved to the island and the process of spatial restructuring started in the Young City3.

The Inner Port by the Dead Vistula River grew alongside the city until the modernization of the maritime transport which took place in the twentieth century. The ambition of further growth and the need to receive a larger number of deep-water containers forced the port to reclaim land in the Outer Port and create the Deepwater Container Terminal5. Further land reclamation is planned in order to increase the capacity of the port5.


Limit
Freeing the industrial and port landscapes for urban areas is possible because of changes in the economic system (shift towards service-based economy) and modernization of the maritime transport, namely containerization.

After the introduction of container ships in the second half of the twentieth century ports needed to meet new spatial requirements such as access to vast land and deep-water areas on the sea1. Although the rivers were dredged to receive larger ships, eventually the cities and the ports grew apart because former harbor areas were not able to fulfill the needs of the modernized port technology1. In many European cities located by rivers, port activities migrated towards the estuary, in some cases, including Gdansk, leading to land reclamation to increase the capacity of the port1.

Sources:

Composition
1 Alexander Tölle,  “Gdańsk,” Cities 25, no. 2 (2008): 107-108.

2 Piotr Lorens, and Jakub Lewicki, “Młode Miasto Gdańsk. Zasady kształtowania przestrzeni dawnej Stoczni Gdańskiej w kontekście wartości zabytkowej i wytycznych konserwatorskich,”[Young City of Gdańsk. Principles of shaping the space of the former Gdańsk Shipyard in the context of historic value and conservation guidelines], (2016): 26.
3 Maria M. Koprowska, and Artur Budziak, “Studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego miasta Gdańska,” [The study of conditions and directions of spatial development in the City of Gdansk], Gdańsk: Biuro Rozwoju Gdańska [Gdansk Development Bureau], 2018, accessed October 28, 2020, https://www.brg.gda.pl/planowanie-przestrzenne/studium-uwarunkowan-i-kierunkow-zagospodarowania-przestrzennego/.

4 “Tak będzie wyglądał Port Centralny w Gdańsku“ [This is how the Central Port in Gdańsk will look like], Rynek infrastruktury, May 20, 2019, https://www.rynekinfrastruktury.pl/wiadomosci/porty/tak-bedzie-wygladal-port-centralny-w-gdansku-67254.html.

5 Robert Kiewlicz, “Gdy powstanie Port Zewnetrzny w Gdańsku, miasto uzyska 120 ha terenów” [When the External Port in Gdańsk is built, the city will gain 120 ha of land], Trójmiasto.pl Biznes, March 23, 2015, https://biznes.trojmiasto.pl/Gdy-powstanie-Port-Zewnetrzny-w-Gdansku-miasto-uzyska-120-ha-terenow-n88743.html.

 

Alteration
1 Carola Hein, “Port cities and urban wealth: between global networks and local transformations,” International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 13, no. 2-4 (2014): 340.

2 Magdalena Szmytkowska, and Klaudia Nowicka, “Neo-Liberal Reality in Post-Industrial Waterfronts of the Post-Socialist Cities: The Polish Tri-City Case,” Economic and Business Review17, no. 2 (2015): 192.

3 Piotr Lorens, and Jakub Lewicki, “Młode Miasto Gdańsk. Zasady kształtowania przestrzeni dawnej Stoczni Gdańskiej w kontekście wartości zabytkowej i wytycznych konserwatorskich,”[Young City of Gdańsk. Principles of shaping the space of the former Gdańsk Shipyard in the context of historic value and conservation guidelines], (2016): 26.

4 Krzysztof Wróbel, and Jan Frankowski, “Fall and Rise of Polish Shipbuilding Industry,” TransNav: International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation 10, no. 1 (2016): 151-152.

5 “O DCT” [About DCT], DCT Gdańsk, Accessed November 15, 2020, https://dctgdansk.pl/o-dct/historia/.

5 “Tak będzie wyglądał Port Centralny w Gdańsku“ [This is how the Central Port in Gdańsk will look like], Rynek infrastruktury, May 20, 2019, https://www.rynekinfrastruktury.pl/wiadomosci/porty/tak-bedzie-wygladal-port-centralny-w-gdansku-67254.html.

 

Limit
1 Brian Hoyle, “Global and local change on the port-city waterfront.” Geographical review 90, no. 3 (2000): 396-397


Composition
Referring to the Toba Lake Tourism Plan, there are four main areas that become the main priorities. It is divided based on the location, potential tourism activities, and the area readiness of tourism development.

The pixel colours illustrate land use types and the size illustrates the area size in an approximation.The patches close to the lakeside are smaller compared to the areas further from the lake. It means that land use conversion is more dynamic within the area nearby the lakeside as settlements growing start from the lake. Agriculture is known as the main activity of local people and can be captured through the characteristics of wetland agriculture are small in area, nearby the settlements and dryland agriculture due (this may be caused by soil types differences).

A main concern that can be concluded is the unsustainable management of agriculture within the Lake Toba Area. There are some misconceptions such as terraces implementation not in parallel to the contours of the land, not applying cultivation of crop rotation, and burning the land for clearing the planting fields. In addition, due to the tourism plan, there are spatial pressure of development especially to the agriculture areas.


Alteration – Past to Present
The culture of Batak Community is manifested to the space. Their strong belief of their connectedness to The God Realm created self-consciousness to always protect nature they live in. It is represented through all worships they do such as ceremonial before agriculture harvesting and some deity stones located in some spaces inside the forest (Simanjutak, 2014).

Moreover, the manifestation also happens through their way of living and can be understood through architecture. From the section, it can be understood that they mainly choose flat land for their houses with mountains as building orientation. The houses are followed by an agricultural area that is located right behind their houses (Simanjutak, 2014).

Batak community lives in a community with the same family clan. Commonly, about 5-8 families live together within one housing complex (Huta) they built from zero in a small space in a forest. Each huta has one king that act as a leader that is trusted to become the decision maker of all Huta’s members. On a larger scale, several Huta form a larger community called Horja and Bius. Horja is a large community with the same family clan while Bius has a different family clan. Previously, there were less conflicts between family clans due to gathering, creating informal markets between women, or strategy-making for war in an open public space (Simanjutak, 2006).

Next, starting from the colonization era, new religion and education had significant influences on the way of thinking of Bataknese (Simanjutak, 2014). Not only that, globalization and new technology also play a big role in the change. This may become an explanation that in some part of Toba Lake surrounding area has different urban fabrics despite it is also because of higher pressure of new development, for example in the area within Balige City.

To conclude, then how can we understand the real meanings of vernacular knowledge? What is the role of vernacular knowledge to the economy? and to what extent we should preserve the culture or maybe just let them evolve?


Limit
Tangible and Intangible Conflict

The Main Economy : Agriculture or Tourism
Farming, cash crops production, fishery, raising animals, and the tourism industry are the main economic activities in the Lake Toba basin. Until today, the agricultural sector remains the main economy sector for people living in the Lake Toba basin even during the economic crisis of 1997, while the tourism industry declined (Meodjodo H., et al., 2006). In addition, despite tourism yearly growth doubled than agriculture (11. 0% for tourism and 4.5% for agriculture), the need to intensify agriculture is highly encouraged due to local people's high dependency on agriculture sectors.

Industry Sector and The Environment
PT Inti Indorayon Utama (IIU) plays a big role on deforestation and pollution within Toba Lake area. Forest exploitation began in 1985 due to the establishment of a pulp-and-rayon processing plant and took the raw materials from the forests in surrounding six districts (kabupatens). This high exploitation is identified as the main reason for the water level decrease of the lake. Not only that, waste materials from the plant also affected the quality of Asahan River due to the toxic substances emission of the AOX category (Adsorbable Organic Halides) (Lake Toba Heritage Foundation, 2000 in Moedjodo H., et al., 2006).

The Water
There are three major problems in the Lake Toba region that have been identified by the provincial government. The first is water quality and water balance due to the operation of industries and water use by inhabitants. The second is land use change that disregards conservation principles that may cause critical land erosion. The third is land tenure by the clan that resulted in practicing sustainable land use and soil conservation measures. And the last land clearing activities that produce not only air pollution but also land and water systems degradation that eventually cause natural disasters of flooding and landslides and reduce biodiversity.

The culture
Tourism is projected to increase economic growth both for national and local. However, the projection and management of this development need to be critically assessed, whether the tourism aims of the advancement of the heritage land by and for the people can be addressed in a justice.

Sources:

Composition
[image sources]
Nasution, Zulkifli, and Sengli Damanik. 2009. “Ekologi Ekosistim Kawasan Danau Toba.” Jurnal Fakultas Pertanian, 75.

Welcome to Badan Informasi Geospatial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 03, 2021, from https://tanahair.indonesia.go.id/

[references]
Nasution, Zulkifli, and Sengli Damanik. 2009. “Ekologi Ekosistim Kawasan Danau Toba.” Jurnal Fakultas Pertanian, 75.

Alteration
[image sources]
Chesner, Craig A. 2012. “The Toba Caldera Complex.” Quaternary International 258: 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.09.025.

[references]
E., S. M., & Simanjuntak, B. A. (2015). Karakter Batak masa lalu, kini, dan masa depan. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

SibatakJalanJalan. (2020, December 29). 95+ foto PULAU Samosir Sejarah Batak Tempo Dulu Berwarna. Retrieved February 03, 2021, from https://www.sibatakjalanjalan.com/2020/03/pulau-samosir-tempo-dulu-dan-sejarahnya-diwarnai-dengan-teknologi-artificial-intelligence-atau-kecerdasan-buatan.html

Simanjuntak, B. A., & Sinaga, D. (2015). Arti dan fungsi tanah bagi masyarakat Batak Toba, Karo, Simalungun. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor.

[image sources]
Moedjodo, H, P Simanjuntak, P Hehanussa, and Lufiandi. 2006. “Experience and Lessons Learned Brief for Lake Toba.” International Lake Environment Committee Foundation 1 (July): 1–30.

 

Limit
[references]
Moedjodo, H, P Simanjuntak, P Hehanussa, and Lufiandi. 2006. “Experience and Lessons Learned Brief for Lake Toba.” International Lake Environment Committee Foundation 1 (July): 1–30.

Simanjuntak, B. A., & Sinaga, D. (2015). Arti dan fungsi tanah bagi masyarakat Batak Toba, Karo, Simalungun. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor.


Composition
Man first crossed the oceans in a search for new land upon which they might settle and build a home. Yet, when we leave our house, what happens to the home? Does it remain, or does it travel with us when we traverse the sea. Let’s propose the latter.  In that case, human habitat is not stationary, but mobile. With every raft we push onto the ocean, with every ship we board, we take a part of our habitat and sail it away from shore.

People constantly move across the coast. The captain of a ferry might arrive at and depart from the coast more than twenty times per day, whereas a technician working on an oil rig spends two full weeks off-shore after every two weeks on land. At any given time hundreds if not thousands of people reside at sea (MarineTraffic 2020). As such, human habitat is not confined to land at all. It is an ever changing sprawl that spreads with every ship, aircraft, train and subway. As we reach underground and skywards, inland and seawards.


Alteration
Habitat is both space and place. It is both house and home. It is life, manifested in physical form. Indeed, a house is only a home when it accommodates life. If we do regard the ocean as a place for life, human life, then human habitat is not confined to terrestrial forms of urbanisation. If a house can be a home, why not a boat or an oil rig?

In the Barents Sea, spatial manifestation of marine inhabitation can be found in both fixed forms, such as oil rigs and platforms, and in flows, such as shipping routes and vessels. For both fixed forms and flows, marine settlement is mostly of a temporal and functional nature.

The architecture of marine settlement responds to this. The architecture of house and home at sea is considerably different from terrestrial homes. Imagine the cabin of a crab fishing vessel or the food court on an oil rig. Could you feel at home there? What is on your night stand? The architecture of marine settlement provides for a different life. How do we relate to these homes? Who is family? Are we proud?


Limit
Alterations in the marine environment impact coastal communities. For example, Hammerfest owes its current prosperity to offshore oil and gas industries. Yet, up until 2002, the town's  economy relied heavily on fishing and a little tourism. Due to the declining fish industry Hammerfest could offer little livelihood prospects and unvaried job opportunities. This led to severe depopulation and unemployment. The arrival of the oil industry revived Hammerfest, creating job opport-unities and cultural development which attracted a new, younger population. Local interviewees describe the offshore petroleum development as “a blessing” (Loe and Kelman 2016).

The socio-economic benefits of the oil industry in Hammerfest are easy to measure, but the offshore developments did more than just increase local job opportunities. According to the interviewees it also changed the mindset and lifestyle of the inhabitants. Transitioning from a culture where neighbours, family and ‘soft’ values were important to a society that emphasises status and income (Loe and Kelman 2016). The question remains, if Hammerfest’s current economy is socially sustainable, considering the Snohvit and Goliat extraction sites are expected to run out within 20 years.

We can conclude that marine industries have a socio-cultural impact on the ocean. Especially in Hammerfest, where the welfare of the population is closely tied to marine industries.  Marine spatial planning should acknowledge coastal communities as a group of people that strongly relates to the ocean and is sensitive to its alterations. As agreed upon in 2015 during the UN sustainable development summit in New York, sustainable development should consider the relationship between society and the natural world (UN 2015). To achieve sustainable oceans, social sustainability cannot be forgotten.

Sources:

Composition
[references text]
“Marine Traffic Density Maps.” MarineTraffic. Accessed November 8, 2020. https://www.marinetraffic.com/en/ais/home/shipid:350778/zoom:6.

“Embassy of the North Sea.” Parliament of Things. Accessed October 27, 2020. https://www.ambassadevandenoordzee.nl.

[sources map]
“Marine Traffic Density Maps.” MarineTraffic. Accessed November 8, 2020. https://www.marinetraffic.com/en/ais/home/shipid:350778/zoom:6.

OpenStreetMap. Norway, Road Network. 2014. Distributed by Geofabrik. https://download.geofabrik.de/europe/norway.html.

 

Alteration
[sources map]
Hanna Resvoll-Holmsen, A Coastal Sami Family at Home in Adamsfjord, Laksefjord, Finnmark, 1909, photograph, Talk Norway, accessed 12 October, 2020, https://talknorway.no/sami-people-the-coastal-sami-and-their-homes-sapmi/.

Julien Nolin, Bio-rig, n.d., digital drawing, Julien Nolin, accessed 12 October, 2020, http://juliennolin.com/biorig.

[sources image]
BBC News, In 360: Life on an Oil Rig, 2018, film still, YouTube, accessed 12 October, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y05IcDJvd4Q.

 

Limit
[references text]
Loe, Julia S.P., and Ilan Kelman. 2016. “Arctic Petroleum’s Community Impacts: Local Perceptions from Hammerfest, Norway.” Energy Research and Social Science 16: 25–34.

[sources map]
Axel Lindahl, Hammerfest in Finnmark, 1889, photograph, Norsk Folkemuseum,  accessed 6 November, 2020, https://digitaltmuseum.no/021016404114.

Loe, Julia S.P., and Ilan Kelman. 2016. “Arctic Petroleum’s Community Impacts: Local Perceptions from Hammerfest, Norway.” Energy Research and Social Science 16: 25–34.

Oskar Puschmann 2004, Hammerfest in Finnmark, 2004, photograph, Norsk Folkemuseum, accessed 6 November, 2020, https://digitaltmuseum.no/021016404114.

Statistics Norway, Area and Population of Urban Settlements, by Region, Contents and Year. 6 October, 2020. Distributed by Statistics Norway. https://www.ssb.no/en/statbank/table/04861/tableViewLayout1/.

Statistics Norway, Area and Population of Urban Settlements, by Region, Contents and Year. 2013. Distributed by Statistics Norway.


Composition
Southeast England’s Land use Patterns

In southeast England, the land and sea are part of the anthropogenic landscape. Only a small percentage (17%) of the land is, however, part of urban developments (UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2015). These developments are often found in the coastal regions and have functions that are in relation to the sea and are accessible through the use of water and ports. The coastal locations of these developments can, however, be negatively affected due to coastal erosion that is caused by the hydraulic action of the water, that is explained during the analysis on matter.

Most of the land around the urban developments is used for arable horticulture, where plants are used for food and non-food products used for personal or social needs. For England this can only be applied in certain regions where the land, and the soil, is arable and thus can be used to grow plants.

Land that is not arable to grow horticulture, or is inaccessible, is filled with grassland or woodland. Some of these woodlands are the remains of the ancient woods from the 1600s and are unique and complex communities of plants, fungi, insects and microorganisms. Today, only 2,5% of the UK is covered by ancient woodlands and can be classified into different categories: Ancient semi-natural woods, that have developed naturally, and plantations on ancient woodland sites, that have replanted with non-native species (Woodland Trust, n.d).


Alteration
Land use Alterations as a result of Coastal Erosion

In southeast England’s coastal zones, urban developments can be found along the coastline. Between the urban environment and the sea environment an area of protection measures, wetlands or cliffs can be found. In southeast England the percentage of these coastal environments is around 6%. Of this 6% nearly 47% includes coastal protection measures. These protection measures can include the different types of management mentioned in TOPOS. Seawards the areas adjacent to the coasts are used for temporary and permanent uses. Where temporary uses include fishing and shipping, while permanent use is defined by uses that are long term such as wind farms, oil production, drill platforms and waste disposals.

In southeast England, many urban development areas can be found in the coastal zones of the British land. However, this coastal zone is often defined by coastal cliffs, causing a vulnerable urban environment due to the effects that can be caused by cliff erosion. Land inwards these urban environments can be neighbouring other anthropogenic landscapes such as horticultural landscapes and orchards and hops. More than a third of the southeast English landscape is occupied by arable horticulture.

Another great part of the southeast English landscape is occupied by grasslands. These grasslands are part of the natural landscape of England and are sometimes protected due to biodiversity or the origin and location of the landscape.

The part of the landscape that is left are the woodlands. These often are found more land inwards. In the UK the term ‘woodland’ is used to identify natural parts of forest that include native woods and trees. In England several ancient woodlands can be found, these have existed since 1600 and have been unaffected by the anthropogenic landscape ever since. However, ancient woodlands can be divided into semi-natural woods and plantations on ancient woodlands sites, where the first defines the natural woods that are used by humans for industries. The second one includes ancient woods that have been felled and replanted with non-native species. These types of ancient woodland still make use of the ancient soil (Woodland Trust, n,d).


Limit
Changing Land use Patterns

Due to the effects of erosion, the land is affected. Some habitats and uses will increase in coastal zones and others will decrease. Due to coastal erosion environments that are identified as coastal zones and wetland in the alteration will be the first zones that are affected. Expected can be that this environment at the coastline will be caused to retreat due to coastal erosion. This retreat will have an effect on other environments, but also other issues will affect this change. Examples of changes that affect the English environments can be the economy, the population growth, tourism and culture.

From the 1960s till 2010 the urban environments in the southeast of England have grown 60% bigger (Kent County Council & KISS, 2008). Without the growth of land surface, this means that other habitats are forced to decrease in size. In the 50 years between 1960 and 2010 these decreases can be found in habitats such as arable horticulture, woodlands, orchards and hops. If the urban environment increases more in size, also the grasslands are expected to shrink. Shrinkage in the arable horticulture habitat is not expected in the next 50 years as, in combination with Brexit, import and export of this sector can influence this sector positively, therefore, a greater part of the British land will be used for this purpose.

The sea landscape has also known changes in the past. Until some years after the 1960s the sea habitat has only been used for shipping purposes. Energy and oil production facilities with a more permanent sea use have taken their place between the late 20th century. Between 2010 and 2050 the use of the sea is expected to change with an increase in energy production (Prime Ministers Office, 2020). A decrease of shipping and oil production is expected to be caused by brexit and the transition to green energy.

Sources:

Composition
British Geological Survey. “UK Soil Observatory.” UKSO. 2020. Accessed November 1, 2020.http://mapapps2.bgs.ac.uk/ukso/home.html

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.  “CORINE Land Cover Map datasets for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey - EIDC [Dataset].” EIDC. 2015. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/2fad7f16-6585-438a-9fe3-a7d68ff642f9

UK Data Service. “Historic ports and coastal sailing routes in England and Wales, 1540-1914 - ReShare [Dataset].” University of Essex. University of Manchester. 2019. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853711/

Woodland Trust.  “Ancient Woodland - British Habitats.” Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/trees-woods-and-wildlife/habitats/ancient-woodland/

 

Alteration
British Geological Survey. “UK Soil Observatory.” UKSO. 2020. Accessed November 1, 2020.http://mapapps2.bgs.ac.uk/ukso/home.html

Masselink, G., & Russell, P. “Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Erosion.” Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership: Science Review. 2014. 71–86. https://doi.org/10.14465/2013.arc09.071-086

Shnizai, Z. “Landslip Remediation of Fairlight Cove, Brighton Cliff.” MSc Environmental Geology. 2012 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331114066_Landslip_Remediation_of_Fairlight_Cove_Brighton_Cliff_MSc_Environmental_Geology

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.  “CORINE Land Cover Map datasets for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey - EIDC [Dataset].” EIDC. 2015. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/2fad7f16-6585-438a-9fe3-a7d68ff642f9

UK Data Service. “Historic ports and coastal sailing routes in England and Wales, 1540-1914 - ReShare [Dataset].” University of Essex. University of Manchester. 2019. Accessed November 4, 2020. https://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/853711/

Woodland Trust.  “Ancient Woodland - British Habitats.” Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/trees-woods-and-wildlife/habitats/ancient-woodland/

[Photos]
Conijn, Gerard “City of New York - Top of the Rock.” Google Photos. July 20, 2016. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipNUjCPq3t1sng54jnHJ9rufqdpGE2llFiLYUl78TIPjtGx73iYpOemDE5rYPMkAQ/photo/AF1QipOyyhG-ooD3HG0HV7Y5Xie5S5Vb57LUxbeqPc_?key=bHNXN2NHbThlVXUtSjdxMmNqZnB3dlZTOUpqTUVB.

Dorling Kindersley. “Wave Power.” DKfindout!. 2020. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.dkfindout.com/uk/earth/coasts/wave-power/

Friends of the Earth Policy. “There’s something wrong in the countryside.” Friends of the Earth Policy. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://policy.friendsoftheearth.uk/insight/theres-something-wrong-countryside-rising-Fpesticide-use-uk.

Kent Orchards. “Traditional Orchards in Kent.” KentOrchards. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://kentorchards.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/DSC_0363-1600x1071.jpg.

Ørsted. “Hornsea One Orsted.” Orsted. 2019. Accessed December 12, 2020.  https://e360.yale.edu/assets/site/Hornsea-OneOrstedweb.jpg

Tepes, Kurt “Black And White Woodlands.” DeviantArt. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.deviantart.com/kurttepesphotography/art/Black-And-White-Woodlands-849485631.

Wildlifetrusts. “Lowland Calcareous Grassland.” Wildlife Trusts. 2017. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.wildlifetrusts.org/habitats/grassland/lowland-calcareous-grassland.

Waterdance. “Lady Maureen.” Lady Maureen Fishing. 2018. Accessed December 12, 2020.  https://www.waterdance.co.uk/lady-maureen

 

Limit
Kent County Council & KISS.  “Land Cover Change Kent 1961-2008.” Kent County Council. 2008. https://www.kent.ac.uk/sac/50farmers/images/maps/pdf/Kent%20County%20Land%20Cover%20Change%20Table.pdf

Prime Minister’s Office. “New plans to make UK world leader in green energy.” GOV.UK. 2020. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-plans-to-make-uk-world-leader-in-green-energy


Composition
Conflict of Worlds

Western epistemologies have corroborated with the myth that the amazon biome is one of untouched wilderness or little human presence (Calisto Duran, 2019). This is not the case as many studies have shown that human presence from pre-Colombian eras have actively influenced and managed the forest, and where there is anthropogenic proven activity, biodiversity is greater (Calisto Duran, 2019). However, modern systems which have implemented a model of development through exploitation and depletion of natural resources, ignores the close ties between anthropogenic forest management techniques and forest biodiversity. The overlapping of these different worldviews is causing irreversible damage for millions of habitats that depend on a stable ecologic dynamic.


Alteration
Territorial Configurations

The amazon holds a multitude of cultures that vary in their forms of occupation in the forest and as such, their forms of occupation vary accordingly. In the case of the Volta Grande do Xingu, three models of occupation are distinctive: Modern, exogenous and in this region highly focused on a development model of exploitation of the natural resources; Indigenous, which are characteristic of local conditions and adapted to fit the natural systems; and Amerindian, the systems of the first nation peoples, which build according to their cosmologies and ancestral heritage. These three distinct systems now exist superimposed onto one another and influence and co-depend on one another to strive, even if this is not always recognized by each of them in one way or another.


Limit
Pulse Variability

In the Volta Grande do Xingu, the water and all life systems that depend on it have now been restricted by the dam and the plan known as “consensus hydrogram” (of which there is no “consent” about it) now directly controls all life on this section of the Xingu Basin. Crucially, when the natural river course was blocked in 2016 and diverted into the constructed reservoir, the Juruna people immediately noticed the destructive alterations on river life and named the year “Ano do Fim do Mundo” or Year of the End of the World. The world they knew, with their ancestral culture and traditions tied exclusively to the river and the Volta Grande do Xingu river bend, had dried up permanently. River pulses are extremely important to the biodiversity of tropical rivers.

Sources:

Composition
Calisto Duran, Ana Maria. 2019. “In the Past , Present and Future Realms of Urban Amazonia.” ResearchGate, no. February 2019. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330858235InthePastPresentandFutureRealmsofUrbanAmazonia.

 

Limit
Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito, Cristiane Carneiro, Thais Mantovanelli, and Biviany Rojas Garzón. 2018. Xingu, o Rio Que Pulsa Em Nós: Monitoramento Independente Para Registro de Impactos Da UHE Belo Monte No Território e No Modo de Vida Do Povo Juruna (Yudjá) Da Volta Grande Do Xingu.


Composition
Paris is a city built on historic layers of habitation. The city has a history of subsurface interventions to sustain urban life at the surface: from underground quarries (construction materials) dating back to the Antiquity to utility systems (sewage, drinking water…) in the 19thCentury, to mobility corridors (metro, trains, and highways…) in the 20th Century. The subsurface of the Parisian region has been characterized as a ‘gruyere’ denouncing the multiple subtractions made by humans underground. Currently, the city is experiencing an entropic urban redevelopment period driven by municipal ambitions for connectivity, accelerated by the forth-coming Olympic Games in 2024, and supported by a new peripheral underground transit system currently under construction: the Grand Paris Express. This underground metro system will double the length of the current Parisian Metropolitan system (200km). It will serve as a connector beyond the Boulevard Périphérique, linking the region’s main international airports, disenclaving various ‘disinvested’ neighborhoods, and reducing the need for automobile transit within the metropole. This transit system has become a catalyst for housing and office construction – transforming entire neighborhoods in the Parisian periphery. Since the formulation of the Grand Paris project in 2007, the city and its periphery have undergone a drastic evolution aiming at consolidating the unity and connectivity of the metropole and projecting it as a competitive economic region.

Alteration
The section views outline three landscapes that derive from the construction processes in the Grand Paris: sites of material extraction (most notably alluvial aggregate and gypsum for concrete), urban spaces (where demolition, construction, and underground excavation occurs), and sites of debris (where excavated matter and construction waste are placed, sorted, and given another undefined purpose). The consutruction of urban space therefore requires the modification and operationalization of other landscapes far from the construction site. In the case of Paris, these landscapes are primarily linked by fluvial waterways (40%), favored over rail and road when possible. The process of urban renewal showcases urban spatial competition – as ‘obsolete’ building typologies are demolished and investments boost the construction of favored habitats. In order to make room for the new underground transit system, a titanic volume of soil is being excavated and is in need of storage. Fields outside of the city boundaries have been converted to temporarily store the excavated matter. These sites and this matter represent the undervalued and discarded residuals of urban development. The externality of the construction process is the debris. The landscapes of debris have their own unique cycle as subjected to the forces of anthropogenic and economic will – where life span is undetermined and fertility and usage not applied.

Limit
The process of urban development triggers immense social, ecological, and economic repercussions – most of them thought out in a top-down approach. But the physical reality of development poses clear limits and challenges. Urban development is first and foremost a physical and material endeavor. The Grand Paris Express and the related neighborhood constructions are creating a great demand for construction materials and producing enormous amounts of debris. It is estimated that more than 200 million tonnes of debris associated with acts of construction, demolition, and excavation will be produced each year between 2015 and 2030. This represents about four pyramids of Giza of debris produced each year for about 15 years1. These land-masses, their logistics, and their future usage represent some of the biggest challenges associated with the Grand Paris project. The physical realities of urban development also relate to the production of construction materials. As materials like gypsum and alluvial aggregates are non-renewable mineral resources, regional reserves are slowly depleting. The diminishing availability of local materials questions the future of construction and its incessant use of resource-intensive and highly polluting concrete as a foundation for urban development.

Sources:

Limit
1 Data Lab. Entreprises du BTP: 227,5 millions de tonnes de dechets en 2014. Ministere de l’Environnement, de l’Energie et de la Mer. (2017).


Composition
Inhabitational patterns follow a clear construct. Deventer and Zutphen are amongst the oldest urban settlements of the Netherlands, located on the high river dunes to the east of the river, on junctions with tributary streambeds (Geologische Dienst Nederland, 2020). Navigability and transport capacity of the waterways were most important factors for the location (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, n.d.). The other cities along the IJssel trajectory were later developed, and became part of the hanseatic trade alliance.

Over the years, inhabitation started to move slowly from the safety of high grounds along the river, into the fertile but unpredictable floodplains of the IJssel estuary and delta. The extraordinary natural environment of the floodplains was cultivated to fit human purposes, decreasing the cyclical movement of nature in favour of rigid and reliable structures.

Alteration
The longitudinal section to the right shows the relation to the tributaries and cities along its flow path, with a perpendicular pattern in the east (underneath the central section), and a parallel pattern to the west (above). This strongly relates to the topography as was discussed in the previous paragraph on Topos, with the parallel flow paths along the river in the floodplains, and the perpendicular tributaries through the river dunes.

The creation of the habitat diversity in the area happened through the interplay of soil, water and air. The meandering river with its parallel tributaries and floodplain to the west continuously deposited and exposed sand particles, after which they were blown onto the dunes on the eastern riverbank by the predominantly south-western winds. These river dunes and high sandy terraces then were built upon and strengthened with pavement and vegetation, creating solid raised foundations suitable for safe and long-term inhabitation close to the river.

Through the process of inhabitation, the naturally opposing habitats were slowly bound in rigid structures, decreasing its natural free-flowing and dynamic character.


Limit
Competition for space in riverine environments can be characterized as a dynamic process, as the free flowing river migrates and changes the surrounding territory continuously. The spatio-temporal diagram to the right shows a fictional riverine flow regime with occasional flooding or peak discharge.

The natural process of ecological regeneration after this disturbance event gradually reclaims its territory, followed by a continuous ecological cycle of succession of species, creating a high amount of habitat diversity along the river. After every disturbance event, depending on the severity of the flooding, and the specific site of the flooding, the process will (partially) start over.

The level of human inhabitation however does not reset and start over, as flooding leads to the creation of protective levees and embankments, creating a safe and liveable environment, rigid within the dynamics of the riverine territory. From the moment of inhabitation, human habitat takes over the dynamic natural character of the place, leading to monoculture and human-dominated territory instead of a cyclical, diverse and ever-changing riverscape.

The horizontal axis depicting the height of the terrain, shows how the human habitat moved from the safe and high grounds, into the low floodplains and riverbanks, increasing the need for ever growing dikes.

The proposition put forward relates the linear (human) and cyclical (natural) inhabitational patterns. Is it feasible to continue this linear process of moving into dynamic habitats now the hydrodynamics of riverine habitats become more extreme? What protection measures would be needed if we do, and what would tis mean for the natural dynamics? On the other hand, would we actually able to move from rigidity and infrastructure towards cyclical patterns of inhabitation?

Sources:

Composition
Sijmons, Dirk, and Fred Feddes. “Landkaartmos en andere beschouwingen over landschap.” Uitgeverij 010, 2002.

HSSN. “Historische Sluizen en Stuwen in Nederland.” Accessed December 24, 2020. https://www.sluizenenstuwen.nl/geschiedenisvansluizenenstuwen.asp

Alteration
AHN. “Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland.” Accessed November 11, 2020. https://ahn.arcgisonline.nl/ahnviewer/

De Ingenieur. “Hoogwatergeul voor de Ijssel.” Accessed October 08, 2020. https://www.deingenieur.nl/artikel/hoogwatergeul-voor-de-ijssel

Klijn, Frans. “The development of the Rhine River’s flood management: past, current and future issues.” Accessed November 26, 2020. http://deltafutureslab.org/media/

 

Limit
Attema, Jisk, Alexander Bakker, Jules Beersma, Janette Bessembinder, Reinout Boers, Theo Brandsma, Henk van den Brink et al. "KNMI’14: Climate Change scenarios for the 21st Century–A Netherlands perspective." KNMI: De Bilt, The Netherlands (2014.

Tol, Richard SJ, Nicolien Van Der Grijp, Alexander A. Olsthoorn, and Peter E. Van Der Werff. "Adapting to climate: a case study on riverine flood risks in the Netherlands." Risk Analysis: An International Journal 23, no. 3 (2003): 575-583.


Composition
The local human habitation on the Western coastline of the Gulf of Riga is strongly linked to three main actors: fishery, forestry and tourism. The local residents living in the villages along the coast are surrounded and strongly linked with the diverse forest and marine ecosystems from which a significant amount of territory is nature and marine protected areas that are established to preserve the natural habitats.

Although the dominant forest typology in Latvia is mixed forest (Nikodemus, 2018), on the coastline conifer forests dominate the landscape. This can be linked to the sandy soil types and marine sediments. However, with increasing demand for renewable resources, the amount of forest clear cutting and young tree plantations are increasing (Pelece, 2015).

The local fishery industries nowadays are linked with catching the fish species in the Gulf. The main species are sprats, Baltic Haring, Flounder, Baltic Salmon. The fish species spawn closer to the coast and therefore the highest density of fish catches is found closer to the coast.

The unique coastal habitation also attracts tourism that plays a significant role in the local economy, providing recreational services for incoming tourists and additional income for the local residents. The importance of tourism tends to increase, that is represented in the growing number of nights spent on the coastline (Klepers, Mardega, Jana Seta, & Ulme, 2020). However, the increase can be seen further from Riga, exceeding 100 percent in the last 10 years.

However, the diversity in habitation is connected by the local residents that perform certain actions in forestry, tourism and fishery. This diversity is strongly influenced by the depopulation of the coastal communities, that in the last decade has lost up to 15% of the inhabitants and it is projected to continue in the coming years (Jana Seta & Ministry of Environmental protection and regional development of Latvia, 2020)


Alteration
The interdependencies between fishery, forestry, tourism and local inhabitants can be seen in the changes of the small port development throughout the time. In the beginning of the 20 century the local economy was based on fishing and wooden ship building. Wood was also used to make piers, fishing net drying racks, huts for storage and living houses.

With the industrialization under the soviet regime, the number of inhabitants in the villages also increased. The importance of forestry and usage of wood was minimized, giving the way to use concrete, bricks and other imported and man-made materials. With increased fishery, wooden boats were replaced by larger metal trawlers that also demanded to construct additional infrastructure, such as piers, docks and several maintenance buildings and deepening the river delta. The fish brought to the coast by the trawlers were then processed on the coast in a canned fish factory that exported the production to other USSR republics. (Marine fishery Museum of Roja, 2015)

Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the local economy has had to adapt to the new market-oriented economy. Several buildings and infrastructure objects were not necessary anymore, becoming empty or demolished. Limits to avoid overfishing lead to down-size the existing fishing fleet (Latvijas Valsts agraras ekonomikas instituts & Benga, 2014). However, with the growing demand for sustainable resources, the forestry export has decreased. The empty areas in the ports are used to store logs before they are exported overseas. The increasing tourism is represented with new yacht docks and additional infrastructure.

These alterations in the port development can be linked with the overall population changes throughout the time, however, it is not yet clear what will be the direction towards the further depopulation and how will it alter the use of the small ports.


Limit
The limits of the habitation are highly influenced by the seasonal change. Due to the geographical location and climatic conditions, Latvia has four distinct meteorological seasons (Klavins, et.al, 2008, 75), therefore all types of habitation have adapted to these conditions. This can also be seen in the time period of forestry, fishing and tourism season.

Forestry season starts in November after the vegetation period of the main tree species, such as pine, birch, spruce, white alder, aspen and black alder have ended and lasts till March (z/s Mikeli, 2020). The active fishing season starts in April after several fish species have had spawn and lasts till mid-June. Although several fish species have different spawning times, the fishery season is limited to the spawning time of the main fish species, such as Baltic salmon, flounder, sprat and Baltic herring. It overlaps with the tourism season that traditionally starts in mid-May and ends in mid-September. During the tourism season, the coastline attracts not only local tourists from Latvia, but also from other countries, such as Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, and Germany (Klepers, Mardega, Jana Seta, & Ulme, 2020).

It can be concluded that due to the highly seasonal aspects, the economic activities linked to fishery, forestry and tourism are not present all year round, putting the pressure on the local inhabitants to adapt to the seasonal diversity, limiting their potential to focus only on one of the activities.

Sources:

Composition
Jana Seta & Ministry of Environmental protection and regional development,“Iedzivotaju skaita parmainas 2011. - 2018.g” and “Prognozejamas iedzivotaju skaita parmainas 2018. - 2030.g”, 2020. Accessed 11 December 2020, https://atr.kartes.lv/

Klepers, A., Mardega, I., Jana Seta, & Ulme, J. Baltijas juras piekrastes apmekletiba, tas raditas slodzes uz vidi un infrastrukturas visparigs izvertejums (1. zinojums).(April, 2020). SIA Nocticus. Accessed 28 December 2020. http://petijumi.mk.gov.lv/sites/default/files/file/1_zi%C5%86ojums_Piekrastes_p%C4%93t%C4%ABjums2020.pdf

Nikodemus, Olgerts and Brumelis, Guntis, 2015 “Dabas aizsardziba”, 2nd edition, Riga, Latvia, LU akademiskais apgads

Pelece, Daina. “Meza nozare Latvija - cela uz augstu pievienoto vertibu”.Makroekonomika. October 27, 2015.  Accessed 11 November 2020. https://www.makroekonomika.lv/meza-nozare-latvija-cela-uz-augstu-pievienoto-vertibu

 

Alteration
Latvijas Valsts agraras ekonomikas instituts, and Benga, Elita. “Zvejniecibas attistiba Baltijas juras un Rigas juras lica piekrastes josla (piekrastes zveja)”.December, 2014 Accessed October 24, 2020 https://www.arei.lv/sites/arei/files/files/lapas/Zvejniecbas%20attstba%20Baltijas%20jras%20un%20Rgas%20jras%20la%20piekrastes%20josl%20piekrastes%20zveja.pdf

Marine fishery Museum of Roja. Exhibition “Permanent exposition about the history of coastal fisheries on the Kurzeme coastline of the Gulf of Riga”, 2015. Accessed 15 August, 2020. Roja, Latvia.

 

Limit
Klavins, Maris et al,  2008 “Klimata mainiba un globala sasilsana”, Riga, Latvia, LU akademiskais apgads

Klepers, A., Mardega, I., Jana Seta, & Ulme, J. “Baltijas juras piekrastes apmekletiba, tas raditas slodzes uz vidi un infrastrukturas visparigs izvertejums (1. zinojums)”.April, 2020. SIA Nocticus. Accessed 28 December 2020. http://petijumi.mk.gov.lv/sites/default/files/file/1_zi%C5%86ojums_Piekrastes_p%C4%93t%C4%ABjums2020.pdf

z/s Mikeli. “Meza darbu kalendars”, 2020. Accessed 20 December 2020. http://mikeli.lv/1/darbi.html